All posts by danielkong6

online traffic school的一些经验

吃了第一张ticket,虽然觉得条子冤枉了我,但也没办法,我周末回国,回来日期未定,没法去法庭跟他们理论,所以只能交了罚款,上traffic school。问了几个朋友,最后发现大多数都推荐gototrafficschool,所以我就选了这个。基本经验如下。

注册的时候记得带上罚单纸,需要case number。注册费用是$19刀,用折扣码 X67-34A-KE4,可以省2刀。

This is online traffic school on gototrafficschool website. and Here is the Coupon code:X67-34A-KE4

gototrafficschool有17个chapter(加州),每个chapter有一些文章要看,如果你common sense够好,可以略过直接答题,每个chapter有2-5道题不等,答错可以无限次重复答题,所以我说common sense不错可以直接答题。每个chapter答题结束有个secure question,基本都是这个chapter的video讲的什么内容,图片里车什么颜色之类的,所以跳过的同时,扫一眼图片,secure question也可以重复回答,没记住也无所谓。
Final exam有25道题,我在网上搜了一下找到答案如下,final exam也是可以重复作答的,25题要对至少20题才能过,没有时间限制,所以做的时候就在下面搜索找答案。如果过了他们会mail一个certificate给你,按照罚单的说明寄给或者送去法庭就好。
希望对大家有帮助。
Congratulations!

You passed the final exam!

You got 25 questions correct.

Review the Correct Answers
1.  Diamond lanes, with the exception of motorcycles and certain hybrid
vehicles in California, are reserved for vehicles with:
A.  children
B.  the elderly
Correct    C.  two or more people
D.  four or more people

2.  ________ refers to speeding without realizing it.
A.  highway hypnosis
Correct    B.  velocitation
C.  road rage
D.  inertia

3.  A _______ limit applies when traveling near school zones.
A.  10 mph
B.  20 mph
Correct    C.  25 mph
D.  35 mph

4.  What kinds of drugs can potentially result in a driver being charged
with a DUI?
A.  narcotics
B.  stimulants
C.  depressants
Correct    D.  all of the above

5.  According to the Basic Speed Law, if conditions make it unsafe to
follow posted speed limits, you should:
Correct    A.  reduce your speed to less than the maximum posted speed limit
B.  maintain your speed as close as possible to the maximum posted
speed limit
C.  increase your speed to more than the maximum posted speed limit
D.  increase your speed to more than the minimum posted speed limit

6.  TRUE or FALSE? It is illegal to hang items from the rear-view mirror
if they can potentially block your view of the environment.
Correct    A.  True
B.  False

7.  If you see someone driving the wrong way on a one-way street, you
should:
A.  flash your lights at them
B.  honk your horn at them
C.  slow down and be ready to stop or pull over to the side to avoid
hitting the wrong-way driver
Correct    D.  all of the above

8.  Headlights should be switched on by law no later than:
A.  9:00 p.m.
B.  sunset
C.  dusk
Correct    D.  30 minutes after sunset

9.  A motorist is guilty of ____________ when he/she operates a motor
vehicle in a manner which endangers or is likely to endanger persons or
property.
A.  Defensive driving
Correct    B.  Aggressive driving
C.  Road rage
D.  None of the above

10.  TRUE or FALSE? You may pass on a two-way road that is marked with a
broken yellow line.
Correct    A.  True
B.  False

11.  TRUE or FALSE? You should activate your turn signal at least 5
seconds before passing on freeways.
Correct    A.  True
B.  False

12.  _______ paint on a curb allows you to stop long enough to load and
unload passengers or objects.
A.  white
Correct    B.  yellow
C.  green
D.  blue

13.  If one of your front tires blows out, you should:
A.  engage your emergency brake
Correct    B.  hold the steering wheel firmly on a straight course
C.  bring your car to an immediate stop
D.  shift to neutral

14.  If your accelerator gets stuck, you should:
A.  turn your wheel sharply to the right and allow your vehicle to
skid to a stop
Correct    B.  shift into neutral
C.  use your emergency brake
D.  pump the accelerator

15.  When exiting the freeway on an off-ramp with a posted speed limit,
you should:
A.  drop your speed to half of the speed limit at which your car was
traveling on the freeway immediately
B.  increase your speed
Correct    C.  gradually slow your speed to the posted speed limit
D.  continue at your current speed because drivers exiting a freeway
have the right-of-way

16.  To avoid collisions when making a right turn, you should __________
A.  drive as close as is practical to the right edge of the roadway
B.  signal about 100 feet before the turn
C.  reduce your rate of speed
Correct    D.  all of the above

17.  TRUE or FALSE? Talking on a hands-free phone is considered a
dangerous driver distraction.
Correct    A.  True
B.  False

18.  Which of the following visual habits can help reduce the chances of
a collision?
A.  performing a head check before moving into another lane
B.  looking directly for oncoming traffic and pedestrians when turning
right on a red light, rather than just using peripheral vision
C.  wearing prescription lenses or glasses if your eyes need them to
see clearly
Correct    D.  all of the above

19.  Pedestrians are not allowed to walk on ________________ unless
there is a sidewalk more than three feet wide and signs permitting
pedestrian access.
Correct    A.  toll bridges or highway crossings
B.  freeways or park sidewalks
C.  railroad tracks or crosswalks
D.  none of the above

20.  Texting while driving in California is ___________.
Correct    A.  Illegal for ALL drivers
B.  Illegal, but only for drivers under 18
C.  Illegal, but only for drivers under 21
D.  Legal for all drivers, but STRONGLY discouraged

21.  If an enraged driver is following you on the freeway and you are
concerned for your safety, you should:
Correct    A.  get off at the next exit and go to a safe place, like a
police station, if they are still following you
B.  open your window and try to talk to them
C.  pull over to the side of the road and settle the dispute
D.  try to escape by accelerating ahead of them

22.  Which of the following is a permitted use of your horn?
Correct    A.  you reasonably believe safety would be compromised without
sounding the horn
B.  another driver honked at you for no apparent reason
C.  you see a friend driving by
D.  you are picking someone up at their house and want them to come
outside

23.  You may drive to the left of a broken yellow line when:
A.  overtaking a vehicle when it is safe to do so
B.  turning left into a driveway
C.  turning left into a side road
Correct    D.  all of the above

24.  High beams should be used instead of low beams in which of the
following circumstances?
A.  when driving in crowded city streets at night
Correct    B.  when driving in poorly lit areas, such as open countryside
at night
C.  when you want to give other drivers a message
D.  when exiting and entering freeway ramps only

25.  Where are you NOT allowed to make a U-turn?
A.  in front of fire stations
B.  a lane other than the very left-hand lane at controlled
intersections
C.  one-way streets
Correct    D.  all of the above

75 Essential Tools for iOS Developers

75 Essential Tools for iOS Developers (FWD)

You can measure a software developer by how they use their tools. Experienced software developers master their tools. It is important to learn your current tools deeply, and be aware of alternatives to fill in gaps where your current ones fall short.

With that in mind, I present to you a gigantic list of tools. Some of these I use daily, others I see potential in. If you have more tools you’d like to see here, just make sure to add a comment.

I tried to categorize these the best I can. Some of the entries are websites, some are back-end services, but most are apps that you install. Not all of the apps are free, so I’ll make a note with a $ to denote that an app costs money.

And without further ado, we’ll start from the beginning of any project, and that

Inspiration

  • pttrns – A great library of iOS screen designs categories by task. If you want to see how other apps handle activity feeds, for instance, this is a great place to go see a bunch of examples.
  • TappGala – Another great collection of nice app designs. It’s not categorized by task, but is just a list of great apps to get inspiration from.
  • Cocoa Controls – A great list of components (code) that you can use in your iOS apps. Sometimes you’ll find great pieces of code that can save you time, other times you can just learn how other developers accomplish certain features. Subscribe to their weekly newsletter; all signal, little noise.
  • IICNS – A collection of really great icons. Get inspired, but don’t copy.
  • Dribbble – Some of the best digital designers post up their work for all to see. A treasure-trove of designs to look at.
  • Capptivate – a gallery of inspirational designs. Some contain animations. Thanks, @joaopmaia!

Design

  • Mocks ($) – An easy to use tool to create a quick mockup of an iOS app. Comes with a bunch of the default controls you can use to assemble something quickly.
  • Briefs ($) – A really useful app that allows you to create a mockup of an app and stitch them together so you can see the interaction. Deploy to a device so you can see what it feels like in your hand.
  • Acorn ($) – A strong competitor to Photoshop, only way cheaper. I find myself reaching for Photoshop less & less these days. Under active development.
  • Sketch ($) – A vector-based drawing tool that is increasingly useful these days, as screen sizes and pixel densities change. It is often helpful to design once and have the freedom to scale up & down as needed. Also sports a really powerful export system. For some example Sketch projects, check out Sketchmine. See my screencast on Sketch for a live demo.
  • iOS 7 PSD by Teehan+Lax – A super handy resource if you (or your designer) uses Photoshop. An iOS 6 version is also available.
  • Bjango’s Photoshop Actions – A definite time-saver if you use Photoshop to design iOS apps. One click access to resize canvases, scale by 200% (or 50%), set global lighting to 90º, and more. Theirblog also has a bunch of useful Photoshop workflow tips.
  • xScope ($) – An indespensible swiss-army knife of tools such as guides, pixel loupes, screen rulers, and more. Want to know what color value that pixel is? Want to see how many pixels between a button and the window for a random Mac app? xScope has you covered. Also check out their companion iPhone app for mirroring designs you’re working on and seeing them in pixel-perfect glory on your iDevice.
  • Glyphish ($) – A fantastic collection of high quality icons for your iOS apps. Apple doesn’t provide a lot of built-in icons, so it’s handy to have a collection of icons covering all kinds of various concepts.I’m still looking for a use for that baby icon though. Glyphish comes in packs, and the latest pack has iOS 7 “thin line” icons which will be very handy when designing an iOS 7 app.
  • Fontastic Icons for iOS – An open source set of classes for utilizing icon fonts, such as Font Awesome in your iOS app. Quickly and easily have an icon in whatever pixel dimensions you require. Since fonts by nature can be scaled up and down with ease, this makes a really nice way to ship & use your icons without having to export multiple versions for the sizes you require.
  • PaintCode ($) – A vector-based drawing tool that exports your artwork as the equivalent Core Graphics source code. Awesome for learning how Core Graphics drawing works, but also incredibly handy if you want your drawing to be dynamic. See my screencast on PaintCode for a live demo.
  • Edge Insets ($) – A simple tool that helps you define your edge insets for repeatable images. Available on the Mac App Store.
  • LiveView – A remote screen viewer for iOS, making it easy to immediately see your designs on a device. Thanks, @_funkyboy!
  • Skala Preview ($) – Another excellent tool for quickly showing your designs off on a real device. The guys at Bjango are awesome and this app is deserving of the price. Thanks, jn40!

Source Control

  • Git – If you’re not using source control stop what you’re doing and rectify that. I use git for everything I do and love it.
  • Kaleidoscope ($) – The best diff/merge tool around. Does 3-way merges and is beautiful to look at. I use it every day.
  • p4merge – A free, ugly alternative to Kaleidoscope. Powerful 3-way merge, but good luck finding the download link. It’s hidden deeper in their site every time I look for it.
  • Git X – A simple, powerful GUI tool for visualizing git timelines and quickly & easily staging commits. I usually live in the Terminal for git usage, but fall back to this app when I need to stage hunks of changes into logical commits. This is a fork of the original (abandoned) GitX, which I found on this list of forks.
  • Source Tree – A free, full-featured Git application. I don’t use this because I favor the command line, but if a GUI tool is your cup-o-tea, check this app out.

Dissecting Apps

  • pngcrush – This little utility can crush & uncrush PNG files, which is handy when you want to view images contained in app bundled distributed in the App Store. Just open iTunes, view the local Apps list, and right click on any icon to Show in Finder. Once there, open up the app and you’ll see a bunch of PNG files, but you can’t view them. Using pngcrush you can extract the full version so it can be opened with Preview.
  • appcrush.rb – This handy little ruby script will automate the above process for all images. Just point it to a .app file on your disk and it will extract all the images to a folder on your desktop. Handy for seeing how apps on your phone accomplish certain designs. Check out my screencast on dissecting apps for a live demo.
  • Charles ($, free limited demo) – I don’t know what’s going on with the ugly UI or icon, but Charles is an essential tool for any developer. Charles acts as a proxy to allow you to inspect your network traffic to & from the iPhone Simulator. You can also inspect traffic from your device by setting your phone’s proxy to your Mac running Charles. With self-signed SSL certificates, request & response breakpoints, and request/response viewers, Charles is really amazingly powerful. A must-have tool. Again, my screencast on dissecting apps covers this well.

Editors

I know what you’re thinking, don’t all iOS developers use Xcode? Well mostly, yes. But with my love/hate relationship with Xcode, I believe there is tremendous value in considering alternatives.

  • AppCode – A full-fledged IDE from Jetbrains (makers of the excellent ReSharper for .NET). Immensely powerful refactorings & features that help you write code faster. Quickly identify dead code, automatically insert #import statements when you use related code, easily extract variables, methods, and classes. My only wish for this app is that it would instead be a plugin to Xcode.
  • Vim – Wait, vim? Really? Yes, there are folks who do all their Objective-C development in vim. I’m not one of these, but I am a fan of vim for Ruby development. As such, I’m a huge fan of…
  • Xvim – An Xcode plug-in that gives you vim keybindings. Works well, ‘nuff said.
  • OMColorSense – Another plugin for Xcode, this one gives you a small display of color when your cursor is on a line looking like:[UIColor redColor]. Clicking on this little color tab opens a color picker that you can change, and any change in color you make is reflected in the code by changing the line to [UIColor colorWithRed:… green:… blue:… alpha:… ]. When someone is watching me write code with this enabled, they invariably ask me, “Whoa! What was that?!”
  • KSImageNamed – Another Xcode plug-in, this one allows you to autocompleted image filenames from your bundle when typing[UIImage imageNamed:…]. Great way to avoid the inevitable typo that causes this method to return nil and you to subsequently waste 10 minutes trying to figure out why your images aren’t displaying.
  • CocoaPods Xcode Plugin – This plug-in adds a menu item for interacting with CocoaPods. Useful if you don’t like dropping to the command line.
  • Alcatraz Package Manager – An awesome meta plug-in that allows you to easily install other Xcode color schemes and plug-ins with a single click.
  • Code Runner ($) – a light-weight code-aware text editor that knows how to compile & run code in most languages. Want to test out a quick snippet of Objective-C code and don’t want to create an entire Xcode project to do it? Code Runner to the rescue.

Documentation

Ahhh, documentation, everyone’s favorite topic. Even still, documentation is really important to have, so pay attention so we can make your life easier.

  • appledoc – Want to automatically generate documentation that look’s like Apple’s? Look no further. Automatically inter-links symbols defined in your project as well as extracting discussion to output using specially formatted code-comments. Generates official docsets and HTML web sites.
  • Dash ($) – A must-have API documentation viewer and code snippet manager. This tool is really handy as it allows you to download & search API docs for all kinds of languages & frameworks with lightning speed. The fastest way to get access to the docs. I integrate Dash with Alfred to make searches even faster.

Dependency Management

Yes, there’s only one tool listed here. I didn’t want to include actual 3rd party libraries, as that would be a different list entirely. When it comes to dependency management, there’s only one game in town:

  • CocoaPods – The essential tool for Objective-C projects. Allows you to quickly & easily integrate 3rd party libraries into your application. It does so by creating a second static library project and automatically links this with your projects. There are thousands of pods available, and it’s easy to add support for libraries that you don’t own (or perhaps are private). I use CocoaPods in every single project I work on.

Diagnostics & Debugging

At some point our app is in the field and we need to understand better what’s going on, maybe to fix bugs or to improve performance.

  • Cocoa Lumberjack – a much more powerful NSLog, Cocoa Lumberjack offers advanced logging behaviors such as logging to rotated files, logging to the network, and filtering based on log level (info, debug, warn, error). Covered by NSScreencast Episode 61
  • DCIntrospect – crazy powerful tool that you’d link inside your app when running in debug and on the simulator. Once you do, you can press the spacebar to get some really helpful view debugging support. See exact dimensions of elements on the screen, print out view hierarchies, even nudge views horizontally or vertically.
  • Pony Debugger – another tool you’d use by embedding a library in your debug builds, Pony Debugger actually utilizes Chrome’s dev tools for seeing network requests coming out of the device, as well as a rudimentary Core Data browser. It’s hard to describe, but check out my screencast on Pony Debugger for more info.
  • Runscope ($) – Runscope is a service running online that can capture requests, log details, and give you valuable data about your API. Simple to set up, as it’s an HTTP pass-through API, all you need to change is your host name.
  • SimPholders – Quick, easy access to your simulator folders. Browse by iOS version, then app name and jump right to the folder in Finder.
  • Spark Inspector ($) – Debug your view hierarchy running on your app in debug mode, in 3D. This app really has to be seen to fully understand the value, but it can really help to understand what views are used to compose your app. Also contains a notification center inspector, so you can easily see what NSNotifications are firing and who is observing them. Another app to look at that is similar is Reveal.

Images

  • ImageAlpha – A Mac app that allows you to convert a 24-bit PNG with transparency to an 8-bit PNG with an alpha channel. Typically 8-bit PNGs don’t have an alpha channel, so if your image can be represented in 8-bits (say, a solid color button) you can save a lot on storage by converting the 24-bit PNG to 8-bit using ImageAlpha.
  • ImageOptim – Another Mac app that compresses PNGs in order to save space. Most PNG files can shave off a few % of the size, and sometimes you’ll shrink the files by 30% or more. Smaller images mean smaller app sizes and less memory used to load them at runtime.
  • Prepo – A little Mac app that can quickly resize artwork in all the various sizes you might need. Just drag a large icon file (say, 1024×1024) onto Prepo and watch it spit out 512×512 iTunesArtwork, 114×114 Icon@2x.png, and all the other sizes & filenames you’d expect.
  • Slender ($) – an awesome app that analyzes your app and finds all sorts of problems, such as missing retina artwork, unused images, image that could benefit from compression and more. Shave kilobytes off of your iPhone app by shedding unused images with Slender.

Core Data

  • Mogenerator – still a super useful tool for generating smart subclasses of your NSManagedObjects in your Core Data model. Some use Xcode for this, and resort to manually subclassing or creating categories in order to add logic to the models. Mogenerator runs as a quick pre-compile script to generate subclasses for you to use. It does this by creating an underscored version (_User) and a regular one for you to modify (User).
  • Base ($) – there will come a time when you need to inspect your actual Core Data sqlite database to see what’s going on. You can use the sqlite3 command line tool, but Base offers a nice looking GUI browser. Just don’t vomit when you see the database schema that Core Data created for you.
  • Core Data Editor ($) – for more advanced data anlysis, exploration, and modification you can use Core Data Editor. This app understands Core Data, so you’re working directly with the entities instead of database rows.

Back-end Services

Ultimately your iOS app will likely want to talk to a server to share data, fetch new content, send push notifications or whatever. While this can be accomplished manually, you might want a more drop-in solution.

  • Helios – Helios is an open-source framework that provides essential backend services for iOS apps, from data synchronization and push notifications to in-app purchases and passbook integration. Built on top of many open source ruby gems, so you can pick & choose and build your own stack if you so desire. Take a look at the Nomad CLI set of handy related tools as well.
  • Windows Azure Mobile Services – you can think of this sort of like a programmable database in the cloud. Create tables, run JavaScript on read, insert, delete to add additional functionality. Really easy support for push notifications as well.
  • Urban Airship – I’ve been using Urban Airship to deliver push notifications for a while now. Really easy to integrate with, and small usage is free.
  • Parse – This is another data-in-the-cloud service, but offers an impressive API and online data browser. We use Parse for a really small app and works well for that.

Analytics

There are other players here, but none that I’ve seen have been compelling enough to switch from flurry. I’m open to hearing suggestions, so let’s hear about ‘em in the comments.

  • Flurry – I’ve used flurry for a long time to provide useful analytics on the usage of my apps. Need to know when to stop supporting iOS 5? Flurry gives you the numbers to have a realistic conversation.

Deployment

  • Deploymate ($) – Need to support iOS 4 still, but you’re compiling with the iOS 6 SDK? Deploymate will warn you when you’re using symbols that don’t exist in your deployment target.
  • Cupertino – Part of the Nomad CLI tools, Cupertino gives you command line access to managing devices & profiles in the Apple Provisioning Portal. For example, just type ios devices:list to see the current list of devices in your account. Useful for automating lots of processes.
  • Hockey App ($) – A great service for managing the distribution of your ad-hoc builds. Testers can get a link to install new betas over the air. Also provides robust crash reporting so you can easily respond to crashes in your apps.
  • TestFlight – A free service, similar to Hockey App. We’ve used TestFlight with great success for easily distributing apps and collecting feedback from our users. My only wish is that they’d start charging for the service. Also includes analytics and crash reporting, but we don’t use those features.
  • iOS Simulator Cropper – A really easy way to snap images of the simulator, with or without status bar, with or without device chrome, etc. Great for taking App Store or just general marketing screenshots.
  • Status Magic ($) – Take better app store screenshots. Nothing makes your app look less crappy than an App Store screenshot that includes a low battery, or low signal. Status Magic gives you complete customization over what’s present in your status bar, including removing elements, changing the time to “9:41 AM” like Apple tends to do, and more.
  • Crashlytics – Excellent crash reporting for your apps in the field. Automatically uploads dSYMs on release builds so your crashes are automatically symbolicated and organized for you to focus on the most critical ones.

Testing

I don’t think we as a community focus enough on testing. There are great tools available to us, and most are so easy to use we have no real excuse not to write at least some tests for our apps.

  • Kiwi – A great Rspec-style testing framework for iOS. Built on top of SenTestingKit, so you just type ⌘U to run your specs. Also includes a completely robust mocking & stubbing library as well as assertions.
  • Specta – A light-weight BDD framework very similar to Kiwi, but the expectation syntax has one major benefit over Kiwi: everything is implicitly boxed like this: expect(items.count).to.equal(5). There’s no need to wrap 5 in an NSNumber like Kiwi does. Use in conjunction with Expecta for a bunch of useful matchers.

The following are all various ways of performing end-to-end acceptance tests. These tests will actually interact with your interface, touching buttons, scrolling, etc. By nature these will be slower and more brittle, but testing in broad strokes is certainly helpful to see if all of the pieces fit together properly.

Demos / Marketing

  • Reflector ($) – Wirelessly mirror your iOS device on your Mac using Air Play. Great for doing demos of applications on your computer.
  • Placeit – A great collection of high res photos of people using devices, but the screens are templates that you can insert your own screenshots into. Very cool, and great for displaying your app in a nice way on your website.

App Sales Reporting

Of course you want to be able to see how much money you’re making on your app, right? There are a few solutions for this, but here are a couple that work well:

  • App Viz 2 ($) – a really useful Mac app for tracking sales of your apps. You run it locally and it logs in and downloads your sales reports.
  • App Annie – an online sales reporting tool. I’m less comfortable giving my credentials to iTunes to a 3rd party, but it does keep the reports up to date for you so you don’t have to run an app locally. In the comments, Josh Brown suggests creating a different user for analytics in iTunes Connect, which is a really good idea.

Grab Bag

These tools don’t have a defined category above, but deserve a mention nonetheless.

  • Quick Radar – Submitting bug reports to Apple is our only way of making their tools better. If you’re frustrated by the lack of a feature, you should be submitting a bug report. If you come across a bug, you should be submitting a bug report. One has no right to complain if they have not yet filed a radar :). With that in mind, submitting bug reports via bugreporter feels like a trip back to 1995. Quick Radar is an awesome little app that makes submitting bug reports super easy. Sports automatic posting to open radar so others can see it, in addition to tweeting, and posting to App.net. I use this app several times per week.

And there you have it. A gigantic wall of tools. Hopefully you learned about a few new ones you can add to your arsenal. If you enjoyed this post, please check out my iOS screencasts over at NSScreencast.

Inheritance polymorphism

public class A {
  public void draw() { ... }
  public void spin() { ... }
}

public class B extends A {
  public void draw() { ... }
  public void bad() { ... }
}

...

A testObject = new B();

testObject.draw(); // calls B's draw, polymorphic
testObject.spin(); // calls A's spin, inherited by B
testObject.bad(); // compiler error, you are manipulating this as an A

iOS interview Questions for Fresher

iOS interview Questions for Freshers

*Q: How would you create your own custom view?

A:By Subclassing the UIView class.

*Q: What is App Bundle?

A:When you build your iOS app, Xcode packages it as a bundle. A bundle is a directory in the file system that groups related resources together in one place. An iOS app bundle contains the app executable file and supporting resource files such as app icons, image files, and localized content.

*Q: Whats fast enumeration?

A:Fast enumeration is a language feature that allows you to enumerate over the contents of a collection. (Your code will also run faster because the internal implementation reduces message send overhead and increases pipelining potential.)

*Q: Whats a struct?

A:A struct is a special C data type that encapsulates other pieces of data into a single cohesive unit. Like an object, but built into C.

*Q: Whats the difference between  NSArray and  NSMutableArray?

A:NSArrayʼs contents can not be modified once itʼs been created whereas a NSMutableArray can be modified as needed, i.e items can be added/removed from it.

*Q: Explain retain counts.

A:Retain counts are the way in which memory is managed in Objective-C. When you create an object, it has a retain count of 1. When you send an object a retain message, its retain count is incremented by 1. When you send an object a release message, its retain count is decremented by 1. When you send an object a autorelease message, its retain count is decremented by 1 at some stage in the future. If an objectʼs retain count is reduced to 0, it is deallocated.

This will explain how the memory management is done in iOS

*Q: Whats the difference between frame and bounds?

A:The frame of a view is the rectangle, expressed as a location (x,y) and size (width,height) relative to the superview it is contained within. The bounds of a view is the rectangle, expressed as a location (x,y) and size (width,height) relative to its own coordinate system (0,0).

*Q: Is a delegate retained?

A:No, the delegate is never retained! Ever!

*Q:Outline the class hierarchy for a UIButton until NSObject.

A:UIButton inherits from UIControl, UIControl inherits from UIView, UIView inherits from UIResponder, UIResponder inherits from the root class NSObject.

*Q:

What are the App states. Explain them?

A:

  • Not running State:  The app has not been launched or was running but was terminated by the system.
  • Inactive state: The app is running in the foreground but is currently not receiving events. (It may be executing other code though.) An app usually stays in this state only briefly as it transitions to a different state. The only time it stays inactive for any period of time is when the user locks the screen or the system prompts the user to respond to some event, such as an incoming phone call or SMS message.
  • Active state: The app is running in the foreground and is receiving events. This is the normal mode for foreground apps.
  • Background state:  The app is in the background and executing code. Most apps enter this state briefly on their way to being suspended. However, an app that requests extra execution time may remain in this state for a period of time. In addition, an app being launched directly into the background enters this state instead of the inactive state. For information about how to execute code while in the background, see “Background Execution and Multitasking.”
  • Suspended state:The app is in the background but is not executing code. The system moves apps to this state automatically and does not notify them before doing so. While suspended, an app remains in memory but does not execute any code. When a low-memory condition occurs, the system may purge suspended apps without notice to make more space for the foreground app.

*Q: Explain how the push notification works.

A:

Push-Overview

*Q: Explain the steps involved in submitting the App to App-Store.

A:

image: ../Art/administration_tasks.png

Apple provides the tools you need to develop, test, and submit your iOS app to the App Store. To run an app on a device, the device needs to be provisioned for development, and later provisioned for testing. You also need to provide information about your app that the App Store displays to customers and upload screenshots. Then you submit the app to Apple for approval. After the app is approved, you set a date the app should appear in the App Store as well as its price. Finally, you use Apple’s tools to monitor the sales of the app, customer reviews, and crash reports. Then you repeat the entire process again to submit updates to your app.

Ref: App Store Review Guidelines
 

*Q: Why do we need to use @Synthesize?

A:

We can use generated code like nonatomic, atmoic, retain without writing any lines of code. We also have getter and setter methods. To use this, you have 2 other ways: @synthesize or @dynamic: @synthesize, compiler will generate the getter and setter automatically for you, @dynamic: you have to write them yourself.@property is really good for memory management, for example: retain.How can you do retain without @property? 

if (_variable != object)

{

    [_variable release];

    _variable = nil;

    _variable = [object retain];

    }

How can you use it with @property?self.variable = object; When we are calling the above line, we actually call the setter like [self setVariable:object] and then the generated setter will do its job.

*Q: Multitasking support is available from which version?

A:

iOS 4.0.

*Q: How many bytes we can send to apple push notification server?

A:

256bytes.

*Q: Can you just explain about memory management in iOS?

A:

Refer: iOS Memory Management

*Q: What is code signing?

A:

Signing an application allows the system to identify who signed the application and to verify that the application has not been modified since it was signed. Signing is a requirement for submitting to the App Store (both for iOS and Mac apps). OS X and iOS verify the signature of applications downloaded from the App Store to ensure that they they do not run applications with invalid signatures. This lets users trust that the application was signed by an Apple source and hasn’t been modified since it was signed.

Xcode uses your digital identity to sign your application during the build process. This digital identity consists of a public-private key pair and a certificate. The private key is used by cryptographic functions to generate the signature. The certificate is issued by Apple; it contains the public key and identifies you as the owner of the key pair.

In order to sign applications, you must have both parts of your digital identity installed. Use Xcode or Keychain Access to manage your digital identities. Depending on your role in your development team, you may have multiple digital identities for use in different contexts. For example, the identity you use for signing during development is different from the identity you user for distribution on the App Store. Different digital identities are also used for development on OS X and on iOS.

An application’s executable code is protected by its signature because the signature becomes invalid if any of the executable code in the application bundle changes. Resources such as images and nib files are not signed; a change to these files does not invalidate the signature.

An application’s signature can be removed, and the application can be re-signed using another digital identity. For example, Apple re-signs all applications sold on the App Store. Also, a fully-tested development build of your application can be re-signed for submission to the App Store. Thus the signature is best understood not as indelible proof of the application’s origins but as a verifiable mark placed by the signer

iOS Interview Questions for Freshers II

 *Q: What is Controller Object?

A:

A controller object acts as a coordinator or as an intermediary between one or more view objects and one or more model objects. In the Model-View-Controller design pattern, a controller object (or, simply, a controller) interprets user actions and intentions made in view objects—such as when the user taps or clicks a button or enters text in a text field—and communicates new or changed data to the model objects.image: Art/controller_object.jpg

When model objects change—for example, the user opens a document stored in the file system—it communicates that new model data to the view objects so that they can display it. Controllers are thus the conduit through which view objects learn about changes in model objects and vice versa. Controller objects can also set up and coordinate tasks for an application and manage the life cycles of other objects. The Cocoa frameworks offer three main controller types: coordinating controllers, view controllers (on iOS), and mediating controllers (on OS X).

*Q: What is Wildcard App IDs?

A:

A wildcard app ID allows you to use an app ID to match multiple apps; wildcard app IDs are useful when you first start developing new apps because you don’t need to create a separate app ID for each app. However, wildcard app IDs can’t be used to provision an app that uses APNS, In App Purchase, or Game Center.

A wildcard app ID omits some or all of the bundle ID in the search string and replaces that portion with an asterisk character (*). The asterisk must always appear as the last character in the bundle search string.

When you use a wildcard app ID, characters preceding the asterisk (if any) must match the characters in the bundle ID, exactly as they would for an explicit app ID. The asterisk matches all remaining characters in the bundle ID. Further, the asterisk must match at least one character in the bundle ID. This table shows an example search string and how it matches some bundle IDs but not others.

image: Art/app_ids_examples.jpg

If an app id uses an * as the bundle ID, then the search string matches any bundle ID.

*Q: What is categories in iOS?

A:

We use categories to define additional methods of an existing class—even one whose source code is unavailable to you—without subclassing. You typically use a category to add methods to an existing class, such as one defined in the Cocoa frameworks. The added methods are inherited by subclasses and are indistinguishable at runtime from the original methods of the class. You can also use categories of your own classes to:

  • Distribute the implementation of your own classes into separate source files—for example, you could group the methods of a large class into several categories and put each category in a different file.
  • Declare private methods.

You add methods to a class by declaring them in an interface file under a category name and defining them in an implementation file under the same name. The category name indicates that the methods are an extension to a class declared elsewhere, not a new class.

Refer: Categories and Extensions

*Q: What is Delegation in iOS?

A:

Delegation is a design pattern in which one object sends messages to another object—specified as its delegate—to ask for input or to notify it that an event is occurring. Delegation is often used as an alternative to class inheritance to extend the functionality of reusable objects. For example, before a window changes size, it asks its delegate whether the new size is ok. The delegate replies to the window, telling it that the suggested size is acceptable or suggesting a better size. (For more details on window resizing, see the windowWillResize:toSize: message.)

Delegate methods are typically grouped into a protocol. A protocol is basically just a list of methods. The delegate protocol specifies all the messages an object might send to its delegate. If a class conforms to (or adopts) a protocol, it guarantees that it implements the required methods of a protocol. (Protocols may also include optional methods).In this application, the application object tells its delegate that the main startup routines have finished by sending it the applicationDidFinishLaunching: message. The delegate is then able to perform additional tasks if it wants.

*Q: How can we achieve singleton pattern in iOS?

A:

The Singleton design pattern ensures a class only has one instance, and provides a global point of access to it. The class keeps track of its sole instance and ensures that no other instance can be created. Singleton classes are appropriate for situations where it makes sense for a single object to provide access to a global resource.

Several Cocoa framework classes are singletons.

They include NSFileManagerNSWorkspaceNSApplication, and, in UIKit, UIApplication. A process is limited to one instance of these classes. When a client asks the class for an instance, it gets a shared instance, which is lazily created upon the first request.Refer: Singleton Pattren

*Q: What is delegate pattern in iOS?

A:

Delegation is a mechanism by which a host object embeds a weak reference (weak in the sense that it’s a simple pointer reference, unretained) to another object—its delegate—and periodically sends messages to the delegate when it requires its input for a task. The host object is generally an “off-the-shelf” framework object (such as an NSWindow or NSXMLParserobject) that is seeking to accomplish something, but can only do so in a generic fashion. The delegate, which is almost always an instance of a custom class, acts in coordination with the host object, supplying program-specific behavior at certain points in the task (see Figure 4-3). Thus delegation makes it possible to modify or extend the behavior of another object without the need for subclassing.

*Q: What are all the difference between categories and subclasses? Why should we go to subclasses?

A:

Category is a feature of the Objective-C language that enables you to add methods (interface and implementation) to a class without having to make a subclass. There is no runtime difference—within the scope of your program—between the original methods of the class and the methods added by the category. The methods in the category become part of the class type and are inherited by all the class’s subclasses.As with delegation, categories are not a strict adaptation of the Decorator pattern, fulfilling the intent but taking a different path to implementing that intent. The behavior added by categories is a compile-time artifact, and is not something dynamically acquired. Moreover, categories do not encapsulate an instance of the class being extended.The Cocoa frameworks define numerous categories, most of them informal protocols . Often they use categories to group related methods. You may implement categories in your code to extend classes without subclassing or to group related methods. However, you should be aware of these caveats:

  • You cannot add instance variables to the class.
  • If you override existing methods of the class, your application may behave unpredictably.

*Q: What is notification in iOS?

A:

The notification mechanism of Cocoa implements one-to-many broadcast of messages based on the Observer pattern. Objects in a program add themselves or other objects to a list of observers of one or more notifications, each of which is identified by a global string (the notification name). The object that wants to notify other objects—the observed object—creates a notification object and posts it to a notification center. The notification center determines the observers of a particular notification and sends the notification to them via a message. The methods invoked by the notification message must conform to a certain single-parameter signature. The parameter of the method is the notification object, which contains the notification name, the observed object, and a dictionary containing any supplemental information.Posting a notification is a synchronous procedure. The posting object doesn’t regain control until the notification center has broadcast the notification to all observers. For asynchronous behavior, you can put the notification in a notification queue; control returns immediately to the posting object and the notification center broadcasts the notification when it reaches the top of the queue.Regular notifications—that is, those broadcast by the notification center—are intraprocess only. If you want to broadcast notifications to other processes, you can use the istributed notification center and its related API.

*Q:What is the difference between delegates and notifications?

A:

We can use notifications for a variety of reasons. For example, you could broadcast a notification to change how user-interface elements display information based on a certain event elsewhere in the program. Or you could use notifications as a way to ensure that objects in a document save their state before the document window is closed. The general purpose of notifications is to inform other objects of program events so they can respond appropriately.But objects receiving notifications can react only after the event has occurred. This is a significant difference from delegation. The delegate is given a chance to reject or modify the operation proposed by the delegating object. Observing objects, on the other hand, cannot directly affect an impending operation.

*Q:What is posing in iOS?

A:

Objective-C permits a class to entirely replace another class within an application. The replacing class is said to “pose as” the target class. All messages sent to the target class are then instead received by the posing class. There are some restrictions on which classes can pose:
  • A class may only pose as one of its direct or indirect superclasses
  • The posing class must not define any new instance variables which are absent from the target class (though it may define or override methods).
  • No messages must have been sent to the target class prior to the posing.
Posing, similarly to categories, allows globally augmenting existing classes. Posing permits two features absent from categories:
  • A posing class can call overridden methods through super, thus incorporating the implementation of the target class.
  • A posing class can override methods defined in categories.

*Q:What is atomic and nonatomic? Which one is safer? Which one is default?

A:

You can use this attribute to specify that accessor methods are not atomic. (There is no keyword to denote atomic.)

nonatomic
Specifies that accessors are nonatomic. By default, accessors are atomic.

Properties are atomic by default so that synthesized accessors provide robust access to properties in a multithreaded environment—that is, the value returned from the getter or set via the setter is always fully retrieved or set regardless of what other threads are executing concurrently.

If you specify strongcopy, or retain and do not specify nontoxic, then in a reference-counted environment, a synthesized get accessor for an object property uses a lock and retains and autoreleases the returned value—the implementation will be similar to the following:

[_internal lock]; // lock using an object-level lock
id result = [[value retain] autorelease];
[_internal unlock];
return result;

If you specify nonatomic, a synthesized accessor for an object property simply returns the value directly.

Markup and Deprecation

Properties support the full range of C-style decorators. Properties can be deprecated and support __attribute__ style markup:

@property CGFloat x
AVAILABLE_MAC_OS_X_VERSION_10_1_AND_LATER_BUT_DEPRECATED_IN_MAC_OS_X_VERSION_10_4;
@property CGFloat y __attribute__((…));

*Q: What is run loop in iOS ?

A:

Run loops are part of the fundamental infrastructure associated with threads. A run loop is an event processing loop that you use to schedule work and coordinate the receipt of incoming events. The purpose of a run loop is to keep your thread busy when there is work to do and put your thread to sleep when there is none.

Run loop management is not entirely automatic. You must still design your thread’s code to start the run loop at appropriate times and respond to incoming events. Both Cocoa and Core Foundation provide run loop objects to help you configure and manage your thread’s run loop. Your application does not need to create these objects explicitly; each thread, including the application’s main thread, has an associated run loop object. Only secondary threads need to run their run loop explicitly, however. In both Carbon and Cocoa applications, the main thread automatically sets up and runs its run loop as part of the general application startup process.

*Q: What isDynamic typing?

A:

A variable is dynamically typed when the type of the object it points to is not checked at compile time. Objective-C uses the id data type to represent a variable that is an object without specifying what sort of object it is. This is referred to as dynamic typing.

Dynamic typing contrasts with static typing, in which the system explicitly identifies the class to which an object belongs at compile time. Static type checking at compile time may ensure stricter data integrity, but in exchange for that integrity, dynamic typing gives your program much greater flexibility. And through object introspection (for example, asking a dynamically typed, anonymous object what its class is), you can still verify the type of an object at runtime and thus validate its suitability for a particular operation.

*Q: What is push notification?How it works?

A:Push-Overview

Refer apple documentation

*Q: What is the configuration file name in iOS explain in brief ? (Or) What is plist file and explain about it is usage?

A:

A property list is a representation of a hierarchy of objects that can be stored in the file system and reconstituted later. Property lists give applications a lightweight and portable way to store small amounts of data. They are hierarchies of data made from specific types of objects—they are, in effect, an object graph. Property lists are easy to create programmatically and are even easier to serialize into a representation that is persistent. Applications can later read the static representation back into memory and recreate the original hierarchy of objects. Both Cocoa Foundation and Core Foundation have APIs related to property list serialization and deserialization.

Property List Types and Objects

Property lists consist only of certain types of data: dictionaries, arrays, strings, numbers (integer and float), dates, binary data, and Boolean values. Dictionaries and arrays are special types because they are collections; they can contain one or multiple data types, including other dictionaries and arrays. This hierarchical nesting of objects creates a graph of objects. The abstract data types have corresponding Foundation classes, Core Foundation types, and XML elements for collection objects and value objects.

 *Q:When will be the autorelease object released?

A:

Once the pool recives drain message.

*Q:Consider we are implementing our own thread with lot of autoreleased object. Is it mandatory to use autorelease pool on this scenario if yes/no why?

A:

YES.

 *Q:  Have you ever used automated unit test framework in iOS? Explain in short?

A:

*Q: What are all the difference between iOS3, iOS4 and iOS5?

A:

Refer:  Apple iOS Versions and diffrences

*Q: Is there any garbage collector concept available in iOS?

A:

No, Manual memory management or ARC.

 *Q: What is difference between synchronous and asynchronous in web request?

A:

*Q:What are all the instruments available in Xcode?

A:

*Q:What is the difference between copy & retain? When can we go for copy and when can we go for retain?

A:

As always  leave your comments & suggestion below for iPhone interview questions.

股票报税

一般来说,股票的盈餘也就是资本利得(Capital gain)。一般分短期(一年以下),和长期(多於一年),短期资本利得税率当做一般收入,税率从10%纍进到35%,长期资本利得税率分两级,如果你的总收入的税率在10%和15%,那麼长期资本利得税率是5%,如果你总收入的税率在28%以上,那麼长期资本利得税率是15%。国会通过的Tax Increase Prevention and Reconciliation Act,改变了2008-2010的资本营利税。具体来说,最高税率高於15%的付税人,他的15%长期资本营利所得税不变;但对最高税率低於15%的付税人,他的长期资本营利所得税在今后三年,将降低到0%,也就是免税。这项税法,同样适用与符合条件的公司股票红利。
美国税法对资本损失(capital loss)抵扣限制很多,总的来说,是用合併(Netting)的方法,先认定每笔交易的资本利得或损失是长期的或短期的,就像分装篮子一样:长期投资的股票全部放在一个篮子里,赚赔互抵,如果赚比赔多,就会有长期资本利得。反之,就会有长期资本损失。同样,短期投资的股票放在一个篮子里,赚赔互抵。如果短期投资的篮子里,赔得比赚得多,就会有短期资本损失。反之,就会有短期资本利得。下一步,是用长期投资篮子剩下的盈亏去和短期投资篮子剩下的盈亏混合,赚赔互抵。结果,如果再剩下的是长期资本利得,则按照5%和15%课税,如果剩餘的是短期资本利得,则按照一般收入课税。如果全部算起来,赔的比赚的多,那麼就是有资本损失,资本损失最多可以抵一般收入3000元。如果资本损失超过3000元,那麼剩餘的部分可以延帐(Carry Over)到往后年度抵收入。没用完的个人的资本损失,可以无限期延到后面年度来抵税,也可以抵其他的长短资本利得,如房地產盈餘,但不可当作遗產传给子孙。
这里是一个简单公式:
短期资本损失+短期资本利得=短期资本利得(损失)
长期资本损失+长期资本利得=长期资本利得(损失)
短期资本利得(损失)+长期资本利得(损失)=长(短)期资本利得(损失)
合併后剩下的盈亏课税方法如下:
短期资本利得:一般收入
长期资本利得:5%或15%税率课税
长(短)期资本损失:抵一般收入3000元,不足部分带到以后年度,一生都可使用。
在计算资本利得时,要避免Wash Sales和Constructive Sales Treatment两大陷阱,否则你到年底可能要缴大笔税。Wash Sales是如果你在卖掉赔钱股票的前后三十天内买相同的股票或期权,那亏损不能抵税。Constructive Sales Treatment是1997年税法的新条文,针对Short Sales等投资。Short Sales就是借股来卖,等以后股票下跌再买股票来还给证券公司,赚赔衹有在还股给证券公司时才能结算。如果你做Short Sales 时赚钱,却不还股给证券公司,还继续买卖相似股票,把赚的钱都留著不报,这就有Constructive Sales Treatment的问题。另一种情况是,你有赚钱的股票在手上不卖,但却把类似的赔钱股票卖掉,也会有Constructive Sales Treatment 的问题。Constructive Sales Treatment 就是假定你把留在手头的股票卖了或还给了证券公司,你要报收入。
买卖美国股票的课税方法非常复杂,如果有比较复杂的股票投资,应该请专业人士为你做税务规划和申报。还要注意的是买卖股票的资料要长期保留,否则无法算出股票的买价和买进时间,就无法报税。
我个人方法是分类开设几个账户,当日冲的账户,短线的账户,长线的账户,等等。按投资方式将不同股票放在不同账户,即方便管理,又方便报税,最大好处是资金管理与风险控制明确了,具体化了。